Depression is a common mental health condition that has a variety of physical and mental symptoms. Although we all feel down and fed up every now and again, depression is more than just that. If you have the condition, you can be sad for weeks, or even months at a time.
Types of depression include:
- mild depression
- clinical depression
- bipolar disorder
- postnatal depression
- seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
Living with this condition can be difficult, not only for sufferers, but also for those around them. Despite this, many sufferers will wait a long time before seeking help. This is especially true if they fear it will see them rejected, ridiculed or deprived of a sense of control. Others may simply be afraid to confront their problems.
This page will explore the condition in more detail, looking into depression symptoms and how it develops. We will also look into the different forms of counselling for depression.
On this page
- How does it feel?
- Why do we become depressed?
- Types of depression
- When is it time to seek help for depression?
How does it feel?
If you have the condition, you are likely to have at least five of the following depression symptoms:
You may feel:
- like life isn’t worth living
- constantly anxious, tearful and worried
- like you can’t concentrate
- irritable and intolerant of others
- you are not getting enough enjoyment out of life
- you have a lack of self-esteem
- you have excessive and inappropriate guilt
- you have no motivation or interest in things you used to enjoy.
You may exhibit:
- changes in sleeping patterns - broken nights or oversleeping
- changes in eating patterns - loss of appetite or overeating
- tiredness and a loss of energy
- persistent headaches and/or stomach upsets
- chronic pain
- a slower speaking pattern than usual
- loss of libido
- changes to your menstrual cycle.
You may also:
- neglect hobbies and interests
- isolate yourself from friends and family
- take part in fewer social activities
- notice your productivity falling at work.
You may not notice if you have developed depression, especially if it has been a gradual process over a number of weeks or months. Sometimes it takes a friend, a family member or a partner to point out that you may have a problem.
Why do we become depressed?
Sometimes it’s instantly apparent what the cause is, but other times there isn’t an obvious reason why you feel so down. It could be that you’ve lost something or someone that you value, or it could stem from disappointment or frustration. Usually there will be more than one reason why you suffer from depression, and these reasons differ from person to person.
Common reasons behind the development of depression include:
Distressing life events
Distressing life events can take their toll on us. Divorce, family problems or losing a job are all serious moments in our lives that can alter our mood in the long-term.
Losing someone that is close to you, even from natural causes, can increase the risk. It’s not always simply the loss that causes it, it’s the way we deal with it. If you don’t grieve or express your feelings properly, they can build up and contribute towards depression.
Your childhood experiences can affect you in adult life. If you were physically or emotionally abused, or not taught to cope with troubles that enter your life, it could lead you to having problems as you grow up.
‘Frozen anger’ is a term that’s closely related to depression. You may have gone through something that caused you to become angry, but at the time you couldn’t express your feelings properly. This type of anger becomes suppressed; it can then build up and become a primary cause of depression.
Feeling like you’re alone, stressed, physically exhausted and/or have no one to talk to can all cause the mental health condition.
Although social media itself doesn’t cause depression, constantly comparing your life to other peoples’ has been heavily linked.
Some types of physical illness can alter how the brain works and cause depression. Such conditions include:
- hormonal problems, e.g. an underactive thyroid
- viral infections, e.g. glandular fever or flu (prevalent in younger people)
- painful or lasting illnesses, e.g. arthritis
- life-threatening conditions, e.g. heart disease and cancer.
Heavy drinking on a regular basis can make you more susceptible to developing depression.
Types of depression
This mental health condition will vary in terms of severity and how it impacts a sufferer's life.
Below are the different types of depression:
Mild depression - When depression symptoms have only a limited impact on a daily life. Generally, sufferers of mild depression will experience a persistent low mood and spirit. They may find it difficult to motivate themselves to do things they normally enjoy.
Major (clinical) depression - A more severe form that can lead to hospital admission. Symptoms will be more prominent and will interfere with an individual's daily life. They can affect an individual's eating habits, sleeping, and other day-to-day activities. Some sufferers may feel suicidal and that life is no longer worth living.
Bipolar disorder - A form of manic depression characterised by extreme highs and lows. For example when a period of hyperactivity where sufferers are excited and planning overambitious tasks is followed by a period of severe depression.
Postnatal depression - A condition that can develop in women between two weeks and two years after childbirth.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) - A form that’s closely related to the length of days. It typically occurs in the autumn and winter months when the days are shorter. Symptoms tend to alleviate when the days get brighter and longer.
When is it time to seek help for depression?
If you experience depression symptoms for most of the day, every day, for more than two weeks, you should seek help from your GP.
If your feelings start affecting many parts of your life, this is a sign you may need professional support.
The parts of your life that depression can have a negative impact on include, but are not limited to:
- overall sense of happiness and enjoyment.
Thoughts of suicide and self-harm are also warning signs that your condition is getting worse. If you experience these, you should seek treatment to beat depression.
For many, being treated for depression can seem an impossible task, but the sooner help is sought the sooner symptoms can be alleviated. In some cases, the illness can disappear without treatment. This is not always the case however and there is a danger that living with the condition will put significant emotional and physical strain on your health and well-being. Therefore, many people with depression opt for treatment.
In the initial stages, your GP will diagnose the condition by conducting tests to rule out other problems such as an underactive thyroid. They will then ask various questions about your general health and how your feelings are affecting your mental and physical well-being. From here, the appropriate treatment options will be pursued. These will depend on the nature of the depression and the individual's personal circumstances.
How to beat depression with talking therapies
Depression is a treatable condition, even in its most severe of form. A range of treatment options are provided. The two most common forms offered are counselling for depression and medication. These are often used in combination - particularly in more severe cases.
Counselling for depression
The following types of counselling and psychotherapy have been proven effective in treating depression:
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
According to guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), cognitive behavioural therapy is among the recommended therapies for treating depression. This therapy is based on the premise that the way we behave and think affects the way we feel. People who suffer from the condition tend to have self-defeating thoughts that can lead to negative behaviour. CBT aims to help them identify and address these negative thoughts.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
This type of talking therapy is specifically designed to help those who suffer from recurring depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy combines elements of cognitive therapy and mindfulness techniques (breathing exercises and meditation) to help break negative thought patterns.
Interpersonal therapy (IPT)
Interpersonal therapy focuses on how our mental health affects our relationships and how our relationships affect us. The thinking behind it is that psychological symptoms, such as depression, are typically a response to a difficulty in our communication with others. The symptoms gained from this can also cause the communication to deteriorate, thus causing a cycle. IPT works best with those who have identifiable problems.
Psychodynamic therapy aims to find out how a person’s unconscious thoughts affect their behaviour. This type of therapy can help individuals understand and unravel their deep-rooted feelings and experiences.
Although the term ‘group therapy’ can be applied to many talking therapies, it’s mainly used with those that work best within a group dynamic. One of the main benefits of this type of therapy is the support network of peers that are going through the same sort of issues. It aims to encourage you to share your experiences and work on understanding yourself better.
Art therapy uses artistic mediums to help individuals explore their emotions in a new way. It uses art as a form of communication - this is especially good for those who find it difficult to verbalise their feelings.
Alongside counselling, medication may be prescribed by GPs to help sufferers who are experiencing moderate to severe depression. Antidepressants can help to ease common depression symptoms such as poor sleep, low mood, and poor concentration. They can help sufferers to function better and can even increase the ability to deal with difficult situations if they arise. Such medication however is not effective for everybody and does not tackle the root cause. This is why counselling for depression is recommended in combination with medical intervention.
What should I be looking for in a counsellor or psychotherapist?
There are currently no laws in place stipulating what training and qualifications a counsellor must have in order to treat depression. However, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) have developed a set of guidelines that provide advice about the recommended treatments, including the following:
- Possible first treatments for mild to moderate depression include a self-help programme, a treatment called computerised cognitive behavioural therapy and a physical activity programme (exercise). If you decide not to have these treatments or they are not available, you may be offered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for short) in a group with other people who have similar problems.
- If self-help, computerised cognitive behavioural therapy and/or physical activity have not helped you, your healthcare professional should discuss with you whether to try either an antidepressant or a psychological treatment.
- Psychological treatments include one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or interpersonal therapy. You may also be offered a treatment called behavioural activation. If you have a regular partner you may be offered behavioural couples therapy.
Read the full NICE guidelines:
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